Barry Estabrook: Have the conditions you described so vividly in Fast Food Nation changed for the better?
Eric Schlosser: I am really gratified and encouraged by the rise of the food movement during the past ten yearsby the anti-obesity efforts, the growing opposition to how fast-food companies market to children, and the huge interest in healthy food and organics and sustainability. A lot of the problems described in Fast Food Nation still exist. But a lot of people are now working on solutions.
BE: The most poignant and memorable sections of the book are where you show us the plight of the workers, not only in fast-food restaurants, but in the slaughterhouses and meatpacking plants that supply them.
ES: Unfortunately, the problem that I probably care about the mostthe exploitation of poor immigrant workershas actually gotten worse since the book was published. Meatpacking remains a low-paid, dangerous job. And the declining value of the federal minimum wage has hurt migrant farmworkers and fast-food workers. Today, the real value of the minimum wage is more than 30 percent lower than it was in the late 1960s. That means, adjusted for inflation, that the poorest workers in the United States have suffered a pay cut of more than $3 an hour. That’s disgraceful. Migrant farmworkers today are earning less money per hour, in many cases, than they did when Cesar Chavez created the United Farm Workers union a generation ago.
BE: Before Fast Food Nation and Chew on This, you had written investigative articles on a variety of subjects. What brought you to food?
ES: I spent a year following the strawberry harvest in California and wrote an article about it, “In the Strawberry Fields,” for the Atlantic Monthly [included in Schlosser’s 2003 book, Reefer Madness]. Pete Wilson, the state’s governor at the time, was demonizing illegal immigrants in the hopes of becoming the Republican candidate for president. He was arguing that illegal immigrants were welfare cheats and parasites who came to California to live off of taxpayers. But those charges didn’t make sense to me. Whenever I visited California, the Latino workers that I saw seemed to be doing difficult, unpleasant jobs that nobody else wanted to do. They didn’t seem to be lounging by the pool, sipping Daiquiris. So I decided to look at the role of illegal immigrants in the California economy. And I found that they weren’t parasitesfar from it. They were propping up the largest sector of the state’s economy, which is agriculture. They’d become essential to the biggest industry in the state. The huge rise in illegal immigration was providing California growers with armies of cheap labor to harvest fruits and vegetables by hand.
I’d never really thought about where my food came from. And the mistreatment of these migrants really opened my eyes to how dependent we are on their labor, how much we take it for granted, and how little gratitude we show for it. My article tried to look below the surface of modern production agriculture and provide a glimpse of how it really operates.
After “In the Strawberry Fields” came out, Will Dana, [now managing editor] of Rolling Stone, read it and asked me to do the same thing for fast food that I did for strawberriesto show us where this food comes from, explain the operating system behind it. I’d been eating fast food all my life without thinking about it. And the more I learned about the subject, the more intrigued I became. What began as an article for Rolling Stone turned into a book, Fast Food Nation. Here was an industry that not only exploited immigrant workers, but also targeted and sickened the children of the poor. So my involvement with food issues, from the beginning, was driven more by an interest in social justice than an interest in food. I know that those two words, social justice, are considered obscene these days by Glenn Beck and his friends. But, you know, I feel pretty good promoting exactly the opposite of what they want to see happen in this country.
BE: Let me play devil’s advocate. These workers are mostly immigrants, many of them in the country illegally. The farm owners and restaurant managers seem to have no trouble finding people who are ready and willing to take the jobs you are talking about. So why should consumers be concerned?
ES: To me, it couldn’t be more simple. If you eat, you should be concerned about the people who are providing you with food. In a rational society, the people who feed us would be celebrated and well-rewarded. And I don’t mean the dozen or so famous celebrity chefs. I mean the farmers, farmworkers, food-processing workers, and restaurant workers who are responsible for producing our food. That’s a pretty basic role in societyand yet these people are too often disrespected and treated extremely poorly. And it’s unnecessary. We can pay a decent wage to workers in the food industrywithout going bankrupt. To double the wages of every farmworker in the United States would probably add about $50 to the annual food budget of the typical American family. It would cost less than four movie tickets and some popcorn. If you want to enjoy a healthy diet and eat a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables, then you are connected to these farmworkers, directly, with every bite. In addition to all the moral and ethical reasons, self-interest should motivate everyone to care about this. You want the people who are handling your food to be treated well, not desperate or desperately ill. The same is true for restaurant workers. You want these people to be okay, when they’re preparing what you eat. To me, that’s just common sense.